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  • Tips for reading baseball scoreboards

    Baseball is one of the most exciting games to watch. But it’s not all that fun if you fail to understand the scoreboard. We often have people around us who might be able to track the scorecard and are constantly nagging us for help during the entire game. Well, if you are the one that nags then this article will help you understand baseball scoreboards better, and if you are the one facing the music, maybe you can get your friends to read this.

    Here is a set of pointers that can improve your understanding of the baseball scorecards:

    • The runs scored in the innings will always be a part of the scoreboard, they are generally located next to the name of the team. The numbers 1-10 indicate the innings that the runs are being scored in. For example, if there is a 4 below 1 in the visitor’s section, then it means they scored 4 runs in that inning. You must also note that a run is counted only when a player completes his run (covering all the four bases).
    • The total of all the runs scored in the 10 innings will be the final score for the team. The runs from all the innings are added to make the final score for the team. The team scoring the highest number of runs at the end of all innings wins the game.
    • The visitor’s team always holds the first horizontal row of the scoring, while the home team holds the bottom position. The away team is on top as they always bat first in a baseball game.
    • The “H” and “E” next to the “R”, indicated the total number of hits and errors made by the player at the base.
    • The number next to the strike denotes the number of strikes the pitcher has made against this particular batter. A batter is out if there are three strikes made against him.
    • The pitch count indicates the number of players that have taken pitch in the entire game for the home team as well as the visitor’s team. The number next to the “V” is for the visitors while the number next to the “H” is for the home team.
    • The “OUT” indicates the number of players that have been dismissed by the pitcher. The pitcher can dismiss a hitter by making three strikes or if one of the fielders catches the ball before it hits the turf.
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  • Treatments available for different stages of metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    Cancer that spreads beyond its source of origin is termed as metastatic cancer, which in case of kidney cancer results in a condition called metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Stage 4 kidney cancer is most advanced and at this point, cancer starts spreading to vital organs in the body through a process called metastasis. Metastasis causes the cancer cells to spread through tissues in the affected areas or thorugh the lymph system in your body and your bloodstream leading to advanced stages of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    It is only logical to opt for viable treatments for renal cell carcinoma since advanced stages develop when this condition is untreated. Treatment options for renal cell carcinoma and metastatic renal cell carcinoma include:

    Surgical resection: Two distinct types of surgical resections namely partial nephrectomy and radical nephrectomy is advised for treating stage 1 renal cell carcinoma. At stage 1, cancer mainly affects the kidney and has not yet spread to other vital organs through tissue, lymph system or bloodstream. Surgical procedures are possible only in those cases where cancer or tumor can be isolated for treatment before metastasis. Also, surgery is an option which is available for patients who are in the early stages of renal cell carcinoma. Patients who have advanced stages have to rely on alternative methods.

    Immunotherapy: This is a biological therapy which involves the use of drugs to manipulate the immune system, making it a targeted approach for destroying cancer cells. Advanced stages, however, will need more than medications to tackle the cancerous cells.

    Embolization: Embolization is a process wherein a substance is used to obstruct the blood vessels which blocks the flow to cancerous cells. Since cancer cells can be carried by the bloodstream to vital organs in metastasis, embolization helps block the blood flow to stop this transmission. However, there is a drawback of this targeted approach since the blood flow to healthy organs will also get blocked which in turn leads to many health complications.

    Radiotherapy: Another targeted approach to destroy cancer cells using high-energy radiation. However, radiotherapy cannot be used if cancer has already spread to other vital organs and parts in your body which is why it is not effective against advanced stages of cancer. Supportive care for stages after metastasis include palliative radiotherapy for targeted treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    The chances of a healthy recovery will depend on the severity of the condition and also the on the patient. Factors like the stage of the disease, age and general health of the patient must be considered while assessing the prognosis.

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